01. Publish data for unspecified use

Simply make data openly and freely available for unencumbered use by third parties.

Description

Activity - A growing enthusiasm for open access and transparency has empowered some efforts simply to make data openly and freely available for unencumbered (including commercial) use by third parties. Government efforts in the USA, the UK and elsewhere provide clear examples of this trend, as do library-specific initiatives such as the Open Library.
This use case differs from UC2 because it is not about a specific publication format, whereas UC2 is about Linked Data.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Actors - Libraries, which may require institutional buy-in and may have contractual and licensing implications with respect to suppliers, partners, etc.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Benefits

Institution - (1) In line with institutional goals and mission with reference to disseminating knowledge, playing a role within the community, enabling innovation, enhancing the web of knowledge, etc; (2) attracts publicity and status for first movers.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Researchers - (1) A building block in opening up access to large and unique collections of data; (2) potential for third party applications to become richer and more responsive to institutional collections, making those collections easier to access whilst also making the applications more useful.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Students - The possibility of Google Scholar and other external services having greater knowledge of institutional holdings
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Motivation

Principles - The rationale is essentially philosophical. The institution or the library believes in the importance of openness, transparency and sharing, and is un-persuaded by arguments to preserve the status quo by keeping data private. For early adopters, publicity and status plus belief in opportunity arising from constructive disruption may play a part in the decision making process.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Costs - Cost benefit is unlikely to be a significant motivation for this approach. However, doing this may represent a negative opportunity cost in diverting attention from another priority.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Services - There is the possibility that a useful service may emerge from an external or internal party, including library users.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Rationale for not doing it - (1) Uncertainty as to the legal status of the data; (2) discomfort with not being able to take the data back once it’s released; (3) concern about how the data might be used, and how that might reflect upon the institution; (4) potential disruption to existing relationships, partnerships, and commercial arrangements; (5) simply insufficient reason to make it a priority.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Costs

Setup - The necessary export capability for Model 1 should already be included within the LMS or equivalent local systems. Configuration to meet specific requirements may require modest effort that will normally be within the abilities of systems staff. Model 2 may incur some additional costs in acquiring additional software, expertise, or external development effort.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Ongoing - The costs associated with sustaining this capability are low, but will inevitably be affected by the frequency with which data updates must be supplied.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Cost of doing nothing - No additional costs will be directly accrued through inaction.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

02. Publish open Linked Data for unspecified use

Make data openly and freely available as Linked Data.

Description

Activity - A growing enthusiasm for open access and transparency has empowered some efforts to simply make data openly and freely available for unencumbered use by third parties. Government efforts in the USA, the UK and elsewhere provide clear examples of this trend, as do library-specific initiatives such as the Open Library. This is a variant of UC1 involving Linked Data.
This use case differs from UC1 because it is specifically about publication as Linked Data format whereas UC1 is about format neutral.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Actors - Libraries, which MAY require institutional buy-in and MAY have contractual and licensing implications with respect to suppliers, partners, etc.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Benefits

Institution - (1) In line with institutional goals and mission with reference to disseminating knowledge, playing a role within the community, enabling innovation, etc; (2) Attracts publicity and status for first movers.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Researchers - (1) A building block in opening up access to large and unique collections of data; (2) potential for third party applications to become richer and more responsive to institutional collections, making those collections easier to access whilst also making the applications more useful.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Students - (1) The possibility of Google Scholar and other external services having greater knowledge of institutional holdings; (2) local discovery becomes easier and richer due to enhanced library data (from other Linked Data sources).
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Motivation

Principles - The rationale is essentially philosophical. The institution or the library believes in the importance of openness, transparency and sharing, and is un-persuaded by arguments to preserve the status quo by keeping data private. Additionally the institution of the library believes that it is important to integrate library data into the fabric of the web, and that Linked Data is the best way of achieving this. For early adopters, publicity and status may play a not-insignificant part in the decision making process.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Costs - Cost benefit is unlikely to be a significant motivation for this approach, especially as this approach may require more effort than UC1. However, doing this may represent an opportunity cost in diverting attention from another priority.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Services - There is the possibility that a useful service may emerge from an external or internal party.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Rationale for not doing it - (1) Uncertainty as to the legal status of the data; (2) discomfort with not being able to take the data back once it’s released; (3) concern about how the data might be used, and how that might reflect upon the institution; (4) potential disruption to existing relationships, partnerships, and commercial arrangements; (5) simply insufficient reason to make it a priority.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Costs

Setup - While much of the software needed to publish Linked Data is Open Source, the time needed to gain the necessary expertise and setup the necessary infrastructure could be significant. In the short-term, outsourcing the provision of the necessary infrastructure could prove more cost effective.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Ongoing - Once the investment in the initial setup has been done, the costs associated with sustaining this capability are likely to be low. If the activity has been outsourced there are likely to be higher ongoing costs in the medium to long-term. However, it should be noted that as the sector understanding of representing bibliographic data as Linked Data changes, it may be that earlier adopters will need to revisit implementations to bring their practice in line with more recent developments elsewhere.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Cost of doing nothing - No additional costs will be directly accrued through inaction.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

03. Supply data for Physical Union Catalogue

Supply bibliographic records containing holdings data to a Union Catalogue service in order to enhance discovery, location and delivery services.

Description

Activity - The supply under open data license of bibliographic records containing holdings data to a Union Catalogue service in order to enhance discovery, location and delivery services for users, especially for special collections. This may also involve a collaborative or copy cataloguing opportunity [see UC11]. Compare with the variant approaches of UC4 and UC5.
This use case differs from UC4 because it is about the source library adopting open licensing to open up possibilities for exploitation of the data, whereas UC4 is about the Union Catalogue organizing the licensing.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Actors - Libraries; the external union catalogue service (which may be a shared service)
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Benefits

Institution - Improved learning and research experience
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Researchers - Potential access to more extensive collections or greater copy availability from other universities and research institutions
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Students - Potential access to more extensive collections or greater copy availability from other universities
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Motivation

Principles - Improved access through discoverability of own resources and access to resources held by partner institutions. Making bibliographic data open for re-use increases those opportunities both within and beyond the Union Catalogue service; doing so at source simplifies the process of developing new services.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Services - Enhancement of the Union Catalogue service, leading to fuller use of the local collection and exploitation of partner collections
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Rationale for not doing it - (1) Not joining a Union Catalogue Service – perhaps believing that library domain services do not compete effectively with generic search engines; (2) Not supplying the records as Open Data – uncertainty about the rights attached to records not originated locally, such as those wholly or partially derived from a collaborative cataloguing service, from publishers or from such as a national library.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Costs

Setup - The necessary export capability should already be included within the LMS or equivalent local systems. Configuration to meet specific requirements may require modest effort that will normally be within the abilities of systems staff.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Ongoing - The costs associated with sustaining this capability are low, but will inevitably be affected by the frequency with which data updates must be supplied.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Cost of doing nothing - No additional costs will be directly accrued through inaction. However, supplying data on a case-by-case basis without adopting an open license or permissive contract may result in an ongoing requirement to receive, assess, and respond to requests for data from third parties.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

04. Allow Physical Union Catalogue to publish data

A union catalogue publishes bibliographic records as open data on behalf of its contributing libraries.

Description

Activity - The supply under open license of bibliographic records from a union catalogue on behalf of its contributing libraries. The open licensing and the open supply of records are undertaken by the union catalogue service. Compare with the variant approaches of UC3 and UC5.
This use case differs from UC3 because it is about the union catalogue organizing open licensing whereas UC3 is about the source library initiating the licensing.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Actors - Libraries, the union catalogue, third parties
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Benefits

Institution - Supporting scholarship beyond the institution, without needing to invest in local systems and support; the records are supplied in the existing manner to the union catalogue service.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Researchers - Increasing flexibility and choice in accessing institutional services, as third parties construct services on the data
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Students - Increasing flexibility and choice in accessing institutional services, as third parties construct services on the data
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Motivation

Principles - Improved access through discoverability of own resources and access to resources held by partner institutions. Making bibliographic data open for re-use increases those opportunities both within and beyond the Union Catalogue service.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Costs - Reduces the costs for providers and consumers; rather than dealing with individual member libraries, the license and supply relationship is with the union catalogue provider.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Services - By making data available in ways that users prefer, usage and satisfaction may rise.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Rationale for not doing it - Individual institutions may prefer to retain a degree of control over the ways in which their data are exposed to third parties. The union catalogue may not wish to absorb poorly understood liabilities on behalf of contributing libraries.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Costs

Setup - As institutions are simply granting a set of additional permissions to a union catalogue service with which they are already associated, there are unlikely to be additional setup costs. Depending upon the nature of the data to be shared, and the form of any existing contractual relationship, there may be a need for some legal costs.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Ongoing - As institutions are simply granting a set of additional permissions to a union catalogue service with which they are already associated, there are no additional ongoing costs.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Cost of doing nothing - None
Part of use case: | Share your experience

05. Expose data for federation into Virtual Union Catalogue

Provision of access under open data license to bibliographic records through a virtual Union Catalogue service in order to enhance discovery, location and delivery services for users, especially for special collections.

Description

Activity - Provision of access under open data license to bibliographic records through a virtual Union Catalogue service in order to enhance discovery, location and delivery services for users, especially for special collections. This may also involve a collaborative or copy cataloguing opportunity (see UC11). Compare with the variant approaches of UC3 and UC4.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Actors - Libraries; the external service (may be a shared service within the sector)
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Benefits

Institution - Improved learning and research experience.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Researchers - Potential access to more extensive collections or greater copy availability from other universities and research institutions
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Students - Potential access to more extensive collections or greater copy availability from other universities
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Motivation

Principles - Improved access through discoverability of own resources and access to resources held by partner institutions. Making bibliographic data open for re-use increases those opportunities both within and beyond the Union Catalogue service.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Costs - Reduces the costs for providers and consumers; rather than dealing with individual member libraries, the license and service relationship is mediated by the union catalogue provider.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Services - By making data available in ways that users prefer, usage and satisfaction may rise.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Rationale for not doing it - (1) Not joining a Union Catalogue Service – believing that library domain services do not compete effectively with generic search engines; (2) Not supplying the records as Open Data – uncertainty about the rights attached to records not originated locally, such as those wholly or partially derived from a collaborative cataloguing service, from publishers or from such as a national library.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Costs

Setup - The necessary ‘target’ capability may already be included within the LMS or equivalent local systems. Configuration to meet specific requirements may require modest effort that will normally be within the abilities of systems staff.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Ongoing - The infrastructural costs associated with sustaining this capability may be relatively low, but will inevitably be directly affected by the efficiency and popularity of the union catalogue itself.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Cost of doing nothing - No additional costs will be directly accrued through inaction. However, supplying data on a case-by-case basis without adopting an open license or permissive contract may result in an ongoing requirement to receive, assess, and respond to requests for data from third parties.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

06. Publish grey literature data

The supply under open license of bibliographic records describing institutional grey literature.

Description

Activity - The supply under open license of bibliographic records describing institutional grey literature.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Actors - Library, academic authors of grey literature, repository managers elsewhere in institution
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Benefits

Institution - (1) Improved learning and research experience; (2) Marketing, through visibility of institutional outputs
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Researchers - Potential to increase visibility of institutional holdings and to amplify own research
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Students - Potential to increase visibility of institutional holdings
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Motivation

Principles - Raise internal and external visibility of institutional resources not formally published elsewhere.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Costs - Delivers value to the institution by increasing visibility of expensively created institutional resources.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Services - Enhances mission of institutional repositories
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Rationale for not doing it - Diverts the attention from more pressing concerns, in repositories and contributing researcher groups
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Costs

Setup - OAI repository software is relatively robust, and there are a number of products from which to choose. Configuration to meet specific requirements may require modest effort that will normally be within the abilities of systems staff.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Ongoing - The infrastructural costs associated with sustaining this capability should be relatively low. The human cost of encouraging deposition and use is more significant.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Cost of doing nothing - No additional costs will be directly accrued through inaction. However, as more institutions set up systems to promote their activities, those without a strategic approach to dissemination of grey literature may well begin to appear less active.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

07. Contribute data to Google Scholar

The supply under open license of bibliographic records containing holdings data to Google in order to enhance discovery, location and delivery services for users.

Description

Activity - The supply under open license of bibliographic records containing holdings data to Google in order to enhance discovery, location and delivery services for users.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Actors - Library; Google
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Benefits

Institution - (1) Improved learning and research experience; (2) Marketing, through visibility of institutional holdings via Google
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Researchers - Potential to increase visibility of institutional holdings via Google rather than via less widely used institutional systems.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Students - Potential to increase visibility of institutional holdings via Google rather than via less widely used institutional systems.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Motivation

Principles - Improved access through discoverability of own resources and equivalent access to resources held by partner institutions
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Costs - Delivers value to library patrons by raising the web-scale visibility of holdings, free of charge.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Rationale for not doing it - Diverts the attention of library systems staff from more pressing concerns.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Costs

Setup - The necessary ‘export’ and link resolver capabilities may already be included within the LMS or equivalent local systems. Configuration to meet specific requirements may require modest effort that will normally be within the abilities of systems staff.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Ongoing - The infrastructural costs associated with sustaining this capability should be relatively low.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Cost of doing nothing - No additional costs will be directly accrued through inaction. However, as more institutions participate in Google Scholar there may be a detrimental effect upon those institutions that choose not to have visibility through this service.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

08. Publish activity data

The publication of library activity data, typically at ‘Title’ level, including the number of transactions such as loans by time period (e.g. Academic Year).

Description

Activity - The publication of library activity data, typically at ‘Title’ level, including the number of transactions such as loans by time period (e.g. Academic Year). This may involve links to user courses in order to support more finely tuned analysis (i.e. activity per Title per period per course). This data will typically be used to make recommendations to users (‘Users like you borrowed …’) and to provide management information (stock optimisation, shelf locations, short loan designation, purchasing recommendations – see UC9).

This is related to but does not include the harvesting of e-journal activity data from Link Resolver usage logs, as undertaken by such as the MESUR project and the ExLibris bX service.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Actors - Libraries; individuals or organisations that wish to process and use the data
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Benefits

Institution - Improved information to assist in stock / collection management; enhanced learning and research experience
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Researchers - Access to the behaviour of peers may be especially valuable in the long tail of specialization and in interdisciplinary research
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Students - Recommendations derived from the behaviour of peers (past and present, here and elsewhere) represent the type of practical support expected from ‘modern’ online services
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Motivation

Principles - Activity data is of interest for both collection management and user recommendations. Larger scale data derived from multiple institutions offers the possibility of more useful analyses and recommendations.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Costs - Cost benefits may be derived from improved collection management
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Services - Management information and user recommendation services covering multiple institutions leading to better purchasing and utilisation
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Rationale for not doing it - Caution regarding the publication of data that could offer competitive advantage (e.g. books used as a proxy for reading lists) or damage reputation (e.g. comparative levels of borrowing) or lead to increased demand and therefore pressure on stock and services.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Costs

Setup - The loans log and export software should be part of the local LMS.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Ongoing - Low, subject to the regularity of records supply
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Cost of doing nothing - No extra costs will be incurred by not doing it. However, doing it without making the data open may generate an ongoing requirement to address requests and to resolve rights issues.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

09. Supply holdings data for Collection Management

The supply of records containing holdings data to a shared service in order to support collection management.

Description

Activity - The supply of records containing holdings data to a shared service in order to support collection management and to optimize holdings. Libraries face increasing pressures on space, and initiatives such as the UK Research Reserve seek to enable holdings decisions on a larger scale than the individual institution. Holdings records (and some of their associated bibliographic information) are transferred to an external entity, which uses these records to inform decisions.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Actors - Libraries, which MAY require institutional buy-in, and the external service (possibly a shared service within the sector)
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Benefits

Institution - Free library space and reduce acquisition costs
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Researchers - Potential access to more extensive collections from other universities
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Students - Potential access to more extensive collections from other universities
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Motivation

Principles - Support decision-making and service development by bringing data together
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Costs - Part of wider cost saving initiatives regarding space and print holdings
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Services - May also lead to more optimal inter-lending arrangements across a consortium
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Rationale for not doing it - Loss of differentiation arising from collaborative activity
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Costs

Setup - The necessary export capability should already be included within the LMS or equivalent local systems. Configuration to meet specific requirements may require modest effort that will normally be within the abilities of systems staff.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Ongoing - The costs associated with sustaining this capability are low, but will inevitably be affected by the frequency with which data updates must be supplied.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Cost of doing nothing - Library staff will continue with current activities, unnecessarily devoting time and effort to the care and management of non- critical resources.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

10. Expose holdings / availability data for Closest Copy location

Expose bibliographic data including holdings and potentially availability that can be used to provide a closest copy location service.

Description

Activity - Expose bibliographic data including holdings and potentially availability that can be used to provide a closest copy location service. There may be opportunity to include availability for print on demand and download as well as the number and status of physical copies. The service may be operated by a 3rd party or by a consortium at regional or national level.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Actors - Libraries; 3rd party or consortium services at an appropriate level
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Benefits

Institution - Efficiency of access to resources for users, who may be highly mobile, is a core selling point given evolving user demographics.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Researchers - Timeliness in terms of closest copy and alternative format is a key factor in research
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Students - Alternative locations and formats are particularly valuable at times when reading lists create intensive demand for a limited set of resources.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Motivation

Principles - Support of the user anytime, anywhere involves exposing the range of access options (locations and formats) available – from home institution or permissible alternative library as physical copy, print on demand or download.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Costs - there no direct cost savings, though this is a building block towards shared collection management and user services suited to the digital information environment and to highly mobile access.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Services - Improved services may result from better location options identification. Open data offers the freedom to pursue those opportunities.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Rationale for not doing it - Given reciprocal services for digital as well as print, the major inhibitor may be in localities where one HEI is more attractive in terms of collections / services / locations than its partners.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Costs

Setup - The necessary ‘target’ capability may already be included within the LMS or equivalent local systems. Configuration to meet specific requirements may require modest effort that will normally be within the abilities of systems staff.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Ongoing - The infrastructural costs associated with sustaining this capability may be relatively low, but will inevitably be directly affected by the efficiency and popularity of the union catalogue itself.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Cost of doing nothing - No additional costs will be directly accrued through inaction. However, supplying data on a case-by-case basis without adopting an open license or permissive contract may result in an ongoing requirement to receive, assess, and respond to requests for data from third parties.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

11. Share data for Collaborative Cataloguing

The development of bibliographic data through a collaborative partnership for the purpose of generating, improving and enhancing records.

Description

Activity - The development of bibliographic data through a collaborative partnership for the purpose of generating, improving and enhancing records. The Use Case assumes that this is being undertaken by a structured group of library partners for the mutual improvement of their catalogues, though the resulting records will be designated as open data and therefore be available for wider use. The effort may be coordinated or by a third party entity.

Services in which the collaborators are not restricted to libraries (or other professional organizations) should be considered as instances of crowd sourcing (see UC12).
This use case differs from UC12 because it is about a closed group of cataloguers and libraries whereas UC12 is about the opening up the cataloguing process itself.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Actors - Libraries that wish to collaborate; perhaps a third party providing the overall service
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Benefits

Institution - Reduction in costs is the typical driver. There is also potential for improved use of and recognition derived from the collection.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Researchers - Depending on the emphasis, collaborative cataloguing may lead to improved discovery of specialized resources.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Students - Depending on the emphasis, collaborative cataloguing may lead to improved discovery of specialized resources.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Motivation

Principles - Well-populated, high quality finding aids are highly desirable. The effort to improve them is costly and the domain knowledge is likely to be scattered. A distributed effort involving professional organizations may therefore be advantageous, especially as the metadata does not itself confer competitive advantage.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Costs - There are significant potential savings in cataloguing time, even when weighed against the overhead of coordination and quality assurance (which may be the responsibility of a third party).
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Services - Improved services may result from better metadata and new services may result from wider description of the collection (assuming some libraries have significant resources incompletely described, notably in special collections). Open data offers the freedom to pursue those opportunities.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Rationale for not doing it - Issues of quality and authority need to be addressed, but should be mitigated by the nature of the collaborating community.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Costs

Setup - The simplest collaboration will be achieved using MARC export and import software, which should be part of the local LMS.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Ongoing - The resource implications of managing the operational process should be reviewed but are likely to fall within the scope of existing processes for managing catalogue records.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Cost of doing nothing - No extra direct costs will be incurred by not doing it, though this may be the principal and most professionally acceptable opportunity to reduce local cataloguing costs.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

12. Supply data for Crowd Sourced Cataloguing

The supply of bibliographic data to volunteers for the purpose of improving and enhancing records.

Description

Activity - The supply of bibliographic data to volunteers for the purpose of improving and enhancing records; this may also involve the creation of new records. Such activity may be directed (e.g. volunteers being requested to focus on specific fields, or to add new records for a specified collection) or it may be opportunistic (i.e. volunteers invited to edit and add as and when they see fit). This Use Case assumes this is being undertaken to benefit the initiating catalogue(s), though the resulting records will be designated as open data and therefore be available for wider use. It will not necessarily involve a third party coordinating organization, though there are attractions in terms of process, quality and web-scale critical mass in such services.

Services in which the collaborators are restricted to libraries (or other professional organizations) are similar in terms of open data but significantly different in other respects (see UC11).
This use case differs from UC11 because it is based on the opening up the cataloguing process itself whereas UC11 is about open data benefits in a closed cataloguing collaboration.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Actors - Libraries; individuals and organisations that wish to make a contribution; optionally third party coordinating services
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Benefits

Institution - None other than upholding the principle of enhancing scholarship through improved discovery and description.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Researchers - Improved discovery, especially in disciplines (e.g. humanities) where historic and grey materials are poorly described, if at all.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Students - Students may be less dependent on extensive description than researchers, though they could benefit from other aspects of metadata (such as enhanced links to courses or contemporary subject keywords)
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Motivation

Principles - Well-populated, high quality finding aids are highly desirable. The effort to improve them is costly and the domain knowledge is likely to be scattered. A distributed and open volunteer approach may therefore be advantageous, especially as the metadata does not itself confer competitive advantage.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Costs - There are significant potential savings in cataloguing time, though this should be weighed against the overhead of coordination and quality assurance.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Services - Improved services may result from better metadata and new services may result from wider description of the collection (assuming some libraries have significant resources incompletely described). Open data offers the freedom to pursue those opportunities.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Rationale for not doing it - Issues of quality and authority are not insignificant and need to be faced head on.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Costs

Setup - The simplest implementation may be achieved using MARC export and import software, which should be part of the local LMS.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Ongoing - The resource implications of managing the operational process must be addressed.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Cost of doing nothing - No extra direct costs will be incurred by not doing it.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

13. Supply data to be enhanced for own use

Supply copies of the library’s data in return for access to enriched metadata.

Description

Activity - The structured nature of library data makes it eminently suitable for automated enrichment in a variety of ways, from identifying alternative versions of a particular work (paperback, hardback, e-book, etc) to adding associated content such as book jacket images, tables of contents, and reviews. Where such enrichment is maintained by third parties, it is often easiest to supply those third parties with copies of the library’s data (even if just an ISBN list) in return for access to the enrichments.
This use case differs from UC12 because it is about exploitation of catalogue data by users without a return path to the library whereas UC12 is about a process intended to benefit the catalogues.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Actors - Libraries, external services
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Benefits

Institution - More compelling, engaging, competitive library services
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Researchers - Table of Contents has some value; however, it is not clear that such as reviews have anything other than cosmetic value in this context.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Students - Table of Contents has some value; such enhancements as reviews may have greater value in this context.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Motivation

Principles - Creation of more completely described and more compelling library resources
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Costs - Cost benefits may arise subject to the service engaged, which may be free or a value added part of a broader subscription or membership arrangement
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Services - Principally a richer and stickier OPAC
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Rationale for not doing it - None, other than an ongoing cost for access to the enrichment data and the resources to load it
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Costs

Setup - The necessary export capability should already be included within the LMS or equivalent local systems. Configuration to meet specific requirements may require modest effort that will normally be within the abilities of systems staff. Access to third party data will typically involve signing a contract or license agreement, as well as either a one-off payment or commitment to an ongoing subscription.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Ongoing - Access to third party data may involve commitment to an ongoing subscription.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Cost of doing nothing - No additional costs will be directly accrued through inaction. However, failure to innovate in this area may result in existing systems becoming increasingly dated in appearance and capability. This may lead to a decline in use within the institution, as potential users look elsewhere.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

14. Publish data for LIS research

The publication of library catalogue data for Library & Information Systems (LIS) research purposes.

Description

Activity - The publication of library catalogue data for Library & Information Systems (LIS) research purposes. Whilst the research may take place within the institution and elsewhere in the HE community, it may not be helpful to plan on that assumption. Specific research requests (both one off and recurrent) may specify data elements (e.g. MARC tags, Dublin Core attributes) and format (e.g. MARC, XML, comma delimited). This Use Case however focuses on general supply for open research use, the researcher being responsible for extraction of the required views.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Actors - Libraries; individual researchers or organisations that wish to study the data (who may be fulfilling contracts for other entities)
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Benefits

Institution - None other than the principle of benefiting scholarship
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Researchers - Indirect benefit through library service improvement; LIS and related researchers will however benefit directly
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Students - Indirect benefit through library service improvement; LIS students will however benefit directly
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Motivation

Principles - LIS research (increasingly linked to study of user behaviour and broader web activity) is widely accepted as beneficial to library services and to the professional community. It may be increasingly important in a globalised knowledge economy.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Costs - Cost benefits may be derived from the research results.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Services - New and improved services may be derived from the results.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Rationale for not doing it - It is the nature of the library community that there is no generally accepted rationale for not sharing such data for research purposes; however, institutions will be cautious if the research is likely to favour a particular commercial party or a disruptive agenda.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Costs

Setup - MARC export software should be part of the local LMS.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Ongoing - Low, subject to the regularity of refresh (e.g. Annual)
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Cost of doing nothing - No extra direct costs will be incurred by not doing it. However, doing it on a case-by-case basis will generate an ongoing requirement to address requests (including pressure to customize the release) and to resolve rights issues.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

15. Allow personal use of data for Reference Management

The supply of bibliographic data under an open license to be used by library members (and other users) in reference management software.

Description

Activity - The supply of bibliographic data to be used by library members (and other users) in reference management software (e.g. using Zotero or EndNote).
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Actors - Libraries; Suppliers of bibliographic data to libraries; Library members/users.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Benefits

Institution - Improved management of bibliographic data throughout research, teaching and learning processes.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Researchers - Time saved in managing references and creating citations and bibliographies.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Students - Time saved in managing references and creating citations and bibliographies.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Motivation

Principles - Support for the academic workflow
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Costs - There may be a cost benefit to the institution by reducing the need for researchers and students to re-key bibliographic information which offers both an immediate time saving and improved accuracy and efficiency in the general management of references and citations.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Rationale for not doing it - Uncertainty as to the legal status of the data
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Costs

Setup - If Z39.50 access is desired, there may be licensing costs associated with enabling this on the library management system, depending on expected level of use and whether Z39.50 is already enabled on the system. There may be some costs associated with staff time spent on the appropriate configuration of the library system.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Ongoing - There may be some costs associated with staff time spent on providing support to users of the service. There may also be recurrent costs associated with providing Z39.50 access to the library catalogue.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Cost of doing nothing - No additional costs will be directly accrued through inaction.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

16. Publish data for lightweight application development

Publishing library data under an open license with the specific intention of encouraging third parties to develop applications and services using the data.

Description

Activity - Bibliographic data held by a library has the potential to deliver value far beyond the OPAC and the internal systems of the library itself. As an adjunct to course websites, as a driver for reading clubs, and as a source of reference data for bloggers, readers, and genre enthusiasts, authoritative bibliographic data deserves to be used in all manner of third party applications. These might be developed by or for a community, and might be free at the point of use, or incur a fee. In all cases the existing library OPAC remains freely available to all.
This use case differs from UC17 because it is about open-ended experimental community development possibilities whereas UC17 is about exploitation in a commercial development.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Actors - Libraries, Application Developers
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Benefits

Institution - Something for nothing; ‘cool’ attitude; encouraging innovative engagement with scholarship
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Researchers - Flexibility and choice in accessing institutional services
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Students - Flexibility and choice in accessing institutional services
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Motivation

Principles - Choice, flexibility, free market, let a thousand flowers bloom. Just because the institution provides an OPAC, it doesn’t mean that all users will be most comfortable with that as their interface. Rather than devote effort to building alternative interfaces, why not expose the data and let those who are interested and motivated do it? Books need not always be central to the use case; much of the real value might actually be found in cases where bibliographic data simply offers a means of enriching or enhancing some other use.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Costs - Avoids the need for the institution to invest in alternative interfaces.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Services - By making data available in ways that users prefer, usage and satisfaction may rise.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Rationale for not doing it - Concerns about (1) user perception of any charge for use of the resulting application; (2) quality and updating of resulting apps, which that might reflect poorly upon the institution; (3) a third party profiting from institutional data. Furthermore providing data for these purposes is simply not core to the institutional mission.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Costs

Setup - The necessary export capability should already be included within the LMS or equivalent local systems. Configuration to meet specific requirements may require modest effort that will normally be within the abilities of systems staff.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Ongoing - The costs associated with sustaining this capability are low, but will inevitably be affected by the frequency with which data updates must be supplied.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Cost of doing nothing - No additional costs will be directly accrued through inaction. However, failure to innovate in this area may result in existing systems becoming increasingly dated in appearance and capability. This may lead to a decline in use within the institution, as potential users look elsewhere.
Part of use case: | Share your experience

17. Allow commercial use of data in mobile application

An application developer might use bibliographic data from an institution to create an iPhone application to provide an alternative means of accessing the catalogue.

Description

Activity - With the rise of App Stores in the mobile phone market, opportunities are created for the provision of cheap applications that leverage institutional data. Given this setting, an application developer (perhaps a student) might use bibliographic data to create an iPhone application to provide an alternative means of accessing the catalogue that some users might prefer. The application costs 79p. There is no requirement that students buy an iPhone or the app, and the existing OPAC remains freely available to all. Alternatively, a library may contract with a developer for something specific but elect to make the data open in order to encourage other developments.
This use case differs from UC16 because it is about commercial development approved by the library whereas UC16 is about open-ended community development.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Actors - Libraries, Application Developer
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Benefits

Institution - Something for negligible cost.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Researchers - Flexibility and choice in accessing institutional services
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Students - Flexibility and choice in accessing institutional services
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Motivation

Principles - Choice, flexibility, free market, let a thousand flowers bloom. Just because the institution provides an OPAC does not mean all users will be most comfortable with that interface. Rather than devote effort to building alternative interfaces, why not expose as open data and let those who are interested and motivated do it?
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Costs - Mobile is just one example; more generally this may reduce the need for the institution to invest in alternative interfaces.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Services - By making data available in ways that users prefer, both usage and satisfaction may rise.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Rationale for not doing it - Concerns about (1) user perception of the charge; (2) quality and updating of any apps and how that might reflect upon the institution; (3) third party profiting from institutional data
Part of use case: | Share your experience

Costs

Setup - The necessary export capability should already be included within the LMS or equivalent local systems. Configuration to meet specific requirements may require modest effort that will normally be within the abilities of systems staff.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Ongoing - The costs associated with sustaining this capability are low, but will inevitably be affected by the frequency with which data updates must be supplied.
Part of use case: | Share your experience
Cost of doing nothing - No additional costs will be directly accrued through inaction. However, failure to innovate in this area may result in existing systems becoming increasingly dated in appearance and capability. This may lead to a decline in use within the institution, as potential users look elsewhere.
Part of use case: | Share your experience